"I am no more optimistic about the future of jazz, as I am about the future of life, because, life is jazz." -Sonny Rollins-

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Coleman Hawkins sessionography

Here comes the beginning - a partial (mostly studio) sessionography that I have collected from various sources (jazzdisco.org), CD covers etc... I focus mainly on the period until the 50's - from those years forward, the information is almost always readily available.
I hope to update from time to time, as soon as I learn anything new. Any information are welcomed and appreciated, leave them in comments!
Last update on Feb 23, 2011

Fletcher Henderson And His Orchestra / The Original Memphis Five / Fletcher Henderson's Orchestra / Trixie's Down Home Syncopators
Louis Armstrong, Elmer Chambers, Howard Scott (cor) Charlie Green (tb) Ralph Escudero (tu) Buster Bailey (cl) Don Redman (as) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Fletcher Henderson (p) Charlie Dixon (bj) Kaiser Marshall (d) Trixie Smith (vo)
NYC, January, 1925
1995-1,2              EVERYBODY LOVES MY BABY     Paramount unissued
1996-1,2              HOW COME YOU DO ME LIKE YOU DO?                -

Ma Rainey And Her Georgia Band
Joe Smith (cor) Charlie Green (tb) Buster Bailey (cl) Coleman Hawkins (bass sax) Fletcher Henderson (p) Charlie Dixon (bj) Kaiser Marshall (d) Ma Rainey (vo)
NYC, early December, 1925
2369-2  SLAVE TO THE BLUES     Paramount 12332; Milestone MLP 2001, M 47021, MCD 47021-2
2370-1  YONDER COME THE BLUES          Paramount 12357
2370-2  YONDER COME THE BLUES          Paramount 12357; Riverside RLP 12-108
2371-1  TITANIC MAN BLUES     Paramount 12374; Riverside RLP 12-113
2371-2  TITANIC MAN BLUES     Paramount 12374
2372-2  CHAIN GANG BLUES      Paramount 12338; Riverside RLP 1045; Milestone MLP 2008, M 47021, MCD 47021-2
2373-1  BESSEMER BOUND BLUES           Paramount 12374
2373-2  BESSEMER BOUND BLUES           Paramount 12374; Milestone MLP 2001, M 47021, MCD 47021-2
2374-1  OH, MY BABE BLUES      Paramount 12332; Riverside RLP 12-121
2375-2  WRINGING AND TWISTING BLUES          Paramount 12338; Riverside RLP 1045, RLP 12-134; Milestone MLP 2008, M 47021, MCD 47021-2
2376-2  STACK O'LEE BLUES        Paramount 12357; Riverside RLP 12-108

Clarence Williams' Orchestra
Ed Allen (cor) Ed Cuffee (tb) Buster Bailey (cl, as) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Clarence Williams (p) Cyrus St. Clair (tuba)
NYC, circa October, 1927
2887-2  SNAKE 'EM UP  Paramount 12587; Riverside RLP 1017
2888-2  JINGLES               -

Fletcher Henderson And His Orchestra
Tommy Ladnier, Joe Smith (cor) Russell Smith (tp) Charlie Green, Jimmy Harrison (tb) June Coles (tu) Buster Bailey (cl) Don Pasquall (as) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Fletcher Henderson (p) Charlie Dixon (bj) Kaiser Marshall (d) Don Redman (arr)
NYC, early 1928
2859      HOP OFF             Paramount 12550; Riverside RLP 12-115

The Mound City Blue Blowers
Glenn Miller (tb) Pee Wee Russell (cl) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Eddie Condon (bj) Jack Bland (g) Al Morgan or Pops Foster (b) Gene Krupa (d) Red McKenzie (comb, vo)
NYC, November 14, 1929
57145-3                HELLO LOLA       Victor V 38100; RCA "X" LX 3005
57146-3                ONE HOUR (IF I COULD BE WITH YOU ONE HOUR TONIGHT)      Victor V 38100; RCA "X" LX 3005; RCA Victor LPV 501

Fletcher Henderson And His Orchestra
Henry "Red" Allen, Russell Smith, Bobby Stark (tp) Claude Jones, Dicky Wells (tb) Hilton Jefferson (as) Russell Procope (as, cl) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Fletcher Henderson (p) Bernard Addison (g) John Kirby (b) Walter Johnson (d)
NYC, September 22, 1933
265135-2             QUEER NOTIONS             Columbia (E) CB 678; Decca 18169; Prestige PR 7645
265136-3             IT'S THE TALK OF THE TOWN      Columbia 2825-D, (E) CB 678; Prestige PR 7645
265137-2             NIGHT LIFE         Columbia (E) CB 727; Decca 18254; Prestige PR 7645
265138-2             NAGASAKI         Columbia 2825-D, (E) CB 727; Vocalion 3322; Prestige PR 7645

Coleman Hawkins And His Orchestra
Henry "Red" Allen (tp) J.C. Higginbotham (tb) Hilton Jefferson (as) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Horace Henderson (p) Bernard Addison (g) John Kirby (b) Walter Johnson (d)
NYC, September 29, 1933
265143-2             THE DAY YOU CAME ALONG      Parlophone (E) R 1685; Prestige PR 7647
265144-2             JAMAICA SHOUT             OKeh 41566; Parlophone (E) R 1685; Decca 3358; Prestige PR 7647
265145-2             HEARTBREAK BLUES       OKeh 41566; Parlophone (E) R 1766; Prestige PR 7647

Horace Henderson And Fletcher Henderson's Orchestra
Henry "Red" Allen, Russell Smith, Bobby Stark (tp) Claude Jones, Dicky Wells (tb) Hilton Jefferson (as) Russell Procope (as, cl) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Horace Henderson (p) Bernard Addison (g) John Kirby (b) Walter Johnson (d) Fletcher Henderson (arr?)
Chicago, IL, October 3, 1933
265150-2             HAPPY FEET       Parlophone (E) R 1792; Decca 18172; Odeon A 277481, 031811; Prestige PR 7645
265151-1             RHYTHM CRAZY (I'M RHYTHM CRAZY NOW)       Parlophone (E) R 1743; Decca 18171; Odeon 031811, OR 1743, 194218; Prestige PR 7645
265152-1             OL' MAN RIVER                                Parlophone (E) R 1766, A 7654, B 71139; Decca 18172; Prestige PR 7645
265153-2             MINNIE THE MOOCHER'S WEDDING DAY            Parlophone (E) R 2031, A 6020, A 7654; Decca 18171; Odeon A 277481; Prestige PR 7645
265154-1             AIN'TCHA GLAD?             Parlophone (E) R 1717, A 6020; Odeon 194218, 031812; Prestige PR 7645
265155-1             I'VE GOT TO SING A TORCH SONG          Columbia (E) CB 701; Decca 18254; Prestige PR 7645

Coleman Hawkins Duo
Coleman Hawkins (ts) Buck Washington (p)
NYC, March 8, 1934
265172-2             IT SENDS ME      Parlophone (E) R 1837; Prestige PR 7647
265173-2             I AIN'T GOT NOBODY     Parlophone (E) R 1825, DPY 1021; Decca 18252; Odeon A 286084, B 35629; Prestige PR 7647
265175-1             ON THE SUNNY SIDE OF THE STREET       Parlophone (E) R 1825; Odeon A 286084, D 5114; Prestige PR 7647

Coleman Hawkins Quartet/Duo
Coleman Hawkins (ts) Stanley Black (p) Albert Harris (g -1,2) Tiny Winters (b -1,2)
London, England, November 18, 1934
1. CE-6739-1       LULLABY              PARLOPHONE (E) R 2007; Odeon A 2365, B 35629; Prestige PR 7647
2. CE-6740-1       LADY BE GOOD Parlophone (E) R 2007, B 27672; Prestige PR 7647
3. CE-6741-1       LOST IN A FOG  Parlophone (E) R 2041, B 27672; Decca 18252; Prestige PR 7647
4. CE-6742-1       HONEYSUCKLE ROSE      Parlophone (E) R 2041; Decca 3358, 3881; Prestige PR 7647

Coleman Hawkins Avec Michel Warlop Et Son Orchestre
Pierre Allier, Arthur Briggs, Noel Chiboust (tp) Guy Paquinet (tb) Andre Ekyan, Charles Lisee (as) Alix Combelle, Coleman Hawkins (ts) Stephane Grappelli (p) Django Reinhardt (g) Eugene D'Hellemmes (b) Maurice Chailloux (d) Michel Warlop (dir)
Paris, France, March 2, 1935
OLA346-1            BLUE MOON      His Master's Voice K-7455, B-8388; Victor A-1419; Prestige PR 7633
OLA347-1            AVALON              His Master's Voice K-7527, B-8388; Prestige PR 7633
OLA348-1            WHAT A DIFFERENCE A DAY MADE         His Master's Voice K-7455, B-8494; Prestige PR 7633

Coleman Hawkins (ts) Stephane Grappelli (p) Django Reinhardt (g) Eugene D'Hellemmes (b) Maurice Chailloux (d) Michel Warlop (dir)
Paris, France, March 2, 1935
OLA349-1            STARDUST          His Master's Voice K-7527, B-8420, HN-4476; Electrola (G) EG-3695; Victor A-1419, DC-15; Prestige PR 7633

Ernst Hoellerhagen, cl, as; Hugo Peritz, Omer de Cock, ts; Ernst Berner, p; Billy Toffel, g; James Gobalet, sb; Benny Peritz, d; Coleman Hawkins, p.
Zurich, May 4, 1936.

Coleman Hawkins, ts; Jack Bulterman, George van Helvoirt, tp; Marcel Thielmans, tb; Sal Doof, as; Wim Poppink, cl, as, bs; Andre van den Ouderaa, cl, ts, vln, Nico de Rooy, p; Fritz Reinders, g; Jack Pet, sb; Kees Kranenburg, d; Anny de Reuver, vcl;
Casino Hamdorff, Laren, April 27, 1937.

Coleman Hawkins And His All-Star Jam Band
Alix Combelle (cl, ts) Andre Ekyan (as) Benny Carter (as, tp, arr) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Stephane Grappelli (p) Django Reinhardt (g) Eugene D'Hellemmes (b) Tommy Benford (d)
Paris, France, April 28, 1937
OLA1742-1          HONEYSUCKLE ROSE      Swing (F) 1; La Voix De Son Maitre (F) 7EMF 26, FELP 174; Django (F) CHTX 240551; Pathe (F) C054-16004; Prestige PR 7633
OLA1743-1          CRAZY RHYTHM               -
OLA1744-1          OUT OF NOWHERE        La Voix De Son Maitre (F) FELP 174; Django (F) CHTX 240551; Pathe (F) C054-16004; His Master's Voice K-8511; Prestige PR 7633
OLA1745-1          SWEET GEORGIA BROWN           La Voix De Son Maitre (F) FELP 174; Django (F) CHTX 240551; Pathe (F) C054-16004; His Master's Voice K-8511, K-9185; Prestige PR 7633

Coleman Hawkins, ts; Freddy Johnson, p.
Hilversum, May 26, 1937.

Coleman Hawkins, ts; Freddy Johnson, p.
Hilversum, August 18, 1937.

Coleman Hawkins, ts; Freddy Johnson, p; Maurice van Cleef, d.
Hilversum, June 14, 1938.

Coleman Hawkins and his Orchestra : Tommy Lindsay, Joe Guy, tp; Earl Hardy, tb; Jackie Fields, Eustis Moore, as; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Gene Rodgers, p; William Oscar Smith, g; Arthur Herbert, d.
New York, October 11, 1939.
042936-1 BODY AND SOUL Bluebird B 10523

Lionel Hampton and his Orchestra : Benny Carter, tp; Edmond Hall, cl; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Lionel Hampton, vib; Joe Sullivan, p; Freddie Green, g; Artie Bernstein, b; Zutty Singleton, d.
New York, December 21, 1939.
046024-1 DINAH Victor 26557

Coleman Hawkins' All-Star Octet : Benny Carter, tp; J.C. Higginbotham, tb; Danny Polo, cl; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Gene Rodgers, p; Lawrence Lucie, g; Johnny Williams, b; Walter Johnson, d.
New York, January 3, 1940.
046156-1 WHEN DAY IS DONE Bluebird B 10693

Coleman Hawkins, ts; Benny Carter, tp, as; Danny Polo, cl; Joe Sullivan, p; Ulysses Livingston, g, vcl; Artie Shapiro, sb; George Wettling, d; Joe Turner, vcl.
New York, January 15, 1940.

Coleman Hawkins and the Chocolate Dandies : Roy Eldridge, tp; Benny Carter, cl, as, p; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Bernard Addison, g; John Kirby, b; Sid Catlett, d.
New York, May 1940.
R 2995-4 SMACK Commodore 624056
R 2998-2 DEDICATION Commodore 624056

Coleman Hawkins and his Orchestra : Tommy Stevenson, Joe Guy, Tommy Lindsay, Nelson Bryant, tp; William Cato, Sandy Williams, Claude Jones, tb; Eustis Moore, Jackie Fields, Ernie Powell, as; Coleman Hawkins, Kermitt Scott, ts; Gene Rodgers, p; Jackie Fields, g; Billy Taylor, b; J.C. Heard, d.
New York, August 9, 1940.
27852-1 ROCKY COMFORT Okeh 6284

Metronome All-Star Band : Harry James, Ziggy Elman, Cootie Williams, tp; Tommy Dorsey, J.C. Higginbotham, tb; Benny Carter, Toots Mondello, as; Tex Beneke, Coleman Hawkins, ts; Count Basie, p; Charlie Christian, g; Artie Bernstein, b; Buddy Rich, d.
New York, January 16, 1941.
060332-1 ONE O'CLOCK JUMP Victor 28925

Count Basie and his Orchestra : Buck Clayton, Harry Edison, Al Killian, Ed Lewis, tp; Ed Cuffee, Dan Minor, Dickie Wells, tb; Tab Smith, Earl Warren, as; Don Byas, Coleman Hawkins, Buddy Tate, ts; Jack Washington, bs; Count Basie, p; Freddie Green, g; Walter Page, b; Jo Jones, d.
Chicago, April 10, 1941.
C3-678-1 9-20 SPECIAL Okeh 6643
C3-3680-1 FEEDIN' THE BEAN Okeh 6643

Coleman Hawkins acc. by Leonard Feather's Esquire All Stars : Cootie Williams, tp; Edmond Hall, cl; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Art Tatum, p; Al Casey, g; Oscar Pettiford, b; Sid Catlett, d.
New York, December 4, 1943.
A4691-1 ESQUIRE BOUNCE Commodore 547
A4693-1 MY IDEAL Commodore 548

Coleman Hawkins and his Orchestra : Bill Coleman, tp; Andy Fitzgerald, cl; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Ellis Larkins, p; Al Casey, g; Oscar Pettiford, b; Shelly Manne, d.
New York, December 8, 1943.
T 1905 VOODTE Signature 28101
T 1906 HOW DEEP IS THE OCEAN Signature 28102
T 1907 HAWKINS' BARREL HOUSE Signature 28101
T 1908 STUMPY Signature 28102

Coleman Hawkins Quintet : Coleman Hawkins ts; Ellis Larkins, p; Jimmy Shirley, g; Oscar Pettiford, b; Max Roach, d.
New York, December 18, 1943.
T 1917 LOVER COME BACK TO ME Brunswick BL 58030
19001 BLUES CHANGES Brunswick Bl 58030

Coleman Hawkins' Swing Four : Coleman Hawkins, ts; Eddie Heywood, p; Oscar Pettiford, b; Shelly Manne, d.
New York, December 23, 1943.
T1923 CRAZY RHYTHM signature 28104
T1924 GET HAPPY Signature 28104
T 19005 THE MAN I LOVE Signature 9001

Coleman Hawkins' Swing Four : Coleman Hawkins, ts; Eddie Heywood, p; Oscar Pettiford, b; Shelly Manne, d.
New York, December 23, 1943.
T 19006 SWEET LORRAINE Signature 9001

Coleman Hawkins, ts; Art Tatum, p.
Esquire Metropolitan Opera House Jam Session.
Metropolitan Opera House, New York, January 18, 1944.
MY IDEAL V-Disc 655

Coleman Hawkins Quintet featuring Teddy Wilson, : Roy Eldridge, tp; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Teddy Wilson, p; Billy Taylor, b; Cozy Cole, d.
New York, January 31, 1944.
KHL 10-2 `S WONDERFUL Keynote K 609
KHL 11-1 I'M IN THE MOOD FOR LOVE Keynote K610
KHL 12-3 "BEAN" AT THE MET Keynote K 610

Coleman Hawkins and his Orchestra : Dizzy Gillespie, Vic Coulsen Ed Vandever, tp; Leo Parker, Leonard Lowry, as; Coleman Hawkins, Don Byas, Ray Abrams, ts; Budd Johnson, bs; Clyde Hart, p; Oscar Pettiford, b; Max Roach, d.
New York, February 16, 1944.
R1000 WOOY'N YOU Apollo 751
R1001 BU-DEE-DAHT Apollo 752
R1002 YESTERDAYS Apollo 752

Coleman Hawkins Quartet : Coleman Hawkins, ts; Teddy Wilson, p; Israel Crosby, b; Cozy Cole, d.
New York, February 17, 1944.
HL 13 FLAME THROWER Keynote K 611
HL 14 IMAGINATION Keynote K 612
HL 15 NIGHT AND DAY Keynote K 611
HL 16 CATTIN' AT KEYNOTE Keynote K 612

Coleman Hawkins and his Orchestra : Dizzy Gillespie, Vic Coulsen Ed Vandever, tp; Leo Parker, Leonard Lowry, as; Coleman Hawkins, Don Byas, Ray Abrams, ts; Budd Johnson, ts; Clyde Hart, p; Oscar Pettiford, b; Max Roach, d.
New York, February, 22, 1944.
R1004 FEELING ZERO Apollo 753
R1005 RAINBOW MIST Apollo 751

Cozy Cole All Stars : Joe Thomas, tp; Trummy Young, tb; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Earl Hines, p; Teddy Walters, g; Billy Taylor, b; Cozy Cole, d.
New York, February 22, 1944.
HLK 17-1 BLUE MOON Keynote K 1300
HLK 18-6 FATHER CO-OPERATES Keynote K 1301
HLK 19-2 JUST ONE MORE CHANCE Keynote K 1300
HLK 20-2 THRU- FOR THE NIGHT Keynote K 1301

Coleman Hawkins, Bud Johnson, ts; Emmet Berry, tp; Walter „Foots“ Thomas, as; Johnny Guarnieri, p; Mack Shopnick, b; Cozy Cole, d.
New York, May 1, 1944.

Auld - Hawkins - Webster Sextet : Charlie Shavers, tp; Ben Webster, cl, ts; Georgie Auld, as, ts; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Bill Rowland, p; Hy White, g; Israel Crosby, b; Specs Powell, d.
New York, May 17, 1944.
R 1016 PICK-UP BOYS Apollo 754
R 1017 PORGY Apollo 754
R 1018 UPTOWN LULLABY Apollo 755
R 1019 SALT PEANUTS Apollo 755

Coleman Hawkins and his Sax Ensemble : Tab Smith, as; Coleman Hawkins, Don Byas, ts; Harry Carney, bs; Johnny Guarnieri, p; Al Lucas, b; Sid Catlett, d.
New York, May 24, 1944.
HL 30-1 THREE LITTLE WORDS Keynote K 1316

Coleman Hawkins and his Sax Ensemble : Tab Smith, as; Coleman Hawkins, Don Byas, ts; Harry Carney, bs; Johnny Guarnieri, p; Al Lucas, b; Sid Catlett, d.
New York, May 24, 1944.
HL 31-1 BATTLE OF THE SAXES Keynote K 1316
HL 32-2 LOUISE Keynote K 1308

Coleman Hawkins' All American Four : Coleman Hawkins, ts; Teddy Wilson, p; John Kirby, b; Sid Catlett, d.
New York, May 29, 1944.
HL 33-2 MAKE BELIEVE Keynote K 1317
HL 34-2 DON'T BLAME ME Keynote K 1320
HL 36-1 HALLELUJAH Keynote K 1320

Cozy Cole - Coleman Hawkins All Stars : Emmett Berry, tp; Eddie Barefield, as; Walter Thomas, as, ts; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Johnny Guarnieri, p; Sid Weiss, b; Cozy Cole, d.
New York, June 14, 1944.
5467 STOMPIN' AT THE SAVOY Savoy 533

Coleman Hawkins Septet : Charlie Shavers, tp; Edmond Hall, cl; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Clyde Hart, p; Tiny Grimes, g; Oscar Pettiford, b; Denzil Best, d.
New York, July 27, 1944.
S 1177 ALL THE THINGS YOU ARE Regis 7002

Walter Thomas And His All Stars
Jonah Jones (tp) Eddie Barefield (cl, ts) Hilton Jefferson (as) Coleman Hawkins, Walter "Foots" Thomas (ts) Clyde Hart (p) Milt Hinton (b) Cozy Cole (d)
NYC, October 11, 1944
8127A-6               IN THE HUSH OF THE NIGHT       Joe Davis 8127; Prestige PR 7584, PRCD 24124-2
8127B-3 | 8006  OUT TO LUNCH                                Joe Davis 8127; Jazz Selection (F) 513; Prestige PR 7584, PRCD 24124-2
8128A-3               EVERY MAN FOR HIMSELF          Joe Davis 8128; Prestige PR 7584, PRCD 24124-2
8128B-4               LOOK OUT JACK               -

K622  Coleman Hawkins - Beyond The Blue Horizon b/w A Shanty In Old Shanty Town
Buck Clayton (tp) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Teddy Wilson (p) Slam Stewart (b) Denzil Best (d)
NYC, October 17, 1944

Charlie Shavers All American Five : Charlie Shavers, tp; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Teddy Wilson, p; Billy Taylor, b: Denzil Best, d.
New York, October 18, 1944.
HL 71-3 UNDECIDED Nippon/Phonogram 18PJ1051/71

Coleman Hawkins Quartet : Coleman Hawkins, ts; Thelonious Monk, p; Edward "Bass" Robinson, b; Denzil Best, d.
New York, October 19, 1944.
FLYIN' HAWK Joe Davis 8250
ON THE BEAN Joe Davis 8251

Coleman Hawkins, ts; solo.
Los Angeles, February/March 1945.
MX 9462-5-A HAWK'S VARIATIONS, PT.1 Selmer Y 7129
MX 9462-5-B HAWK'S VARIATIONS, PT.2 Selmer Y 7129

Coleman Hawkins and his Orchestra : Howard McGhee, tp; Coleman Hawkins, tp; Sir Charles Thompson, p; Allen Reuss, g; Oscar Pettiford, b; Denzil Best, d.
Los Angeles, February 23, 1945.
573 APRIL IN PARIS Capitol 15853
574 RIFFTIDE Capitol 15335
576 STUFFY Capitol 15254

Coleman Hawkins and his Orchestra : Howard McGhee, tp; Coleman Hawkins, tp; Vic Dickenson, tb; Sir Charles Thompson, p; Allen Reuss, g; Oscar Pettiford, b; Denzil Best, d.
Los Angeles, March 2, 1945.
587 WHAT IS THERE TO SAY Capitol 15335

Coleman Hawkins and his Orchestra : Howard McGhee, tp; Coleman Hawkins, tp; Sir Charles Thompson, p; Allen Reuss, g; John Simmons, b; Denzil Best, d.
Los Angeles, March 9, 1945.
594 BEAN SOUP Capitol 15855
596 IT'S THE TALK OF THE TOWN Capitol 15853

Coleman Hawkins and his 52nd Street All Stars : Charlie Shavers, tp; Pete Brown, as; Coleman Hawkins, Allen Eager, ts; Jimmy Jones, p; Mary Osborne, g; Al McKibbon, b; Shelly Manne, d.
New York, February 27, 1946.
PD6VB 1308 SAY IT ISN'T SO Bluebird 5658-1-RB

Jazz at the Philharmonic : Buck Clayton, tp; Illinois Jacquet, Lester Young, Coleman Hawkins, ts; Kenny Kersey, p; Al McKibbon, b; J.C. Heard, d.
Carnegie Hall, New York, May 27, 1946.
I CAN'T GET STARTED Mercury MG 35014

Coleman Hawkins and his Orchestra : Coleman Hawkins, ts; Milt Jackson, vib; Hank Jones, p; Curley Russell, b; Max Roach, d.
New York, December 1946.
SR 1859 YOU GO TO MY HEAD Sonora 3027
SR 1860 COCKTAILS FOR TWO Sonora 3024

Coleman Hawkins And His Orchestra
Fats Navarro (tp) J.J. Johnson (tb) Porter Kilbert (as) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Milt Jackson (vib -2) Hank Jones (p) Curly Russell (b) Max Roach (d)
NYC, December, 1946
1. SR1857            I MEAN YOU      Sonora 3027; Prestige PR 7824; Milestone M 47015; Prestige PRCD 24124-2
2. SR1858-1        BEAN AND THE BOYS     Sonora 3024; Prestige PR 7824; Milestone M 47015; Prestige PRCD 24124-2
3. SR1858-2        BEAN AND THE BOYS (ALT)         Prestige PR 7824; Milestone M 47015; Prestige PRCD 24124-2

Metronome All Stars : Charlie Shaves, tp; Lawrence Brown, tb; Johnny Hodges, as; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Harry Carney, bs; Nat King Cole, p; Bob Ahern, g; Eddie Safranski, b; Buddy Rich, d; Frank Sinatra, Nat King Cole, June Christy, voc.
New York, December 17, 1946.
CO 37177 SWEET LORRAINE Columbia 37293
CO 37178 NAT MEETS JUNE Columbia 37293

Coleman Hawkins All Stars : Miles Davis, tp; Kai Winding, tb; Howard Johnson, as; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Hank Jones, p; Curley Russell, b; Max Roach, d.
New York, June 1947.
215 BEAN-A-RE-BOP Aladdin 3006
216 ISN'T IT ROMANTIC Aladdin EP 516
218 PHANTOMESQUE Aladdin EP 516

Coleman Hawkins and his All Stars : Fats Navarro, tp; J.J. Johnson, tb; Budd Johnson, as; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Marion De Veta, bs; Hank Jones, p; Chuck Wayne, g; Jack Lesberg, b; Max Roach, d.
New York, December 11, 1947.
D7VB 2662 ANGEL FACE Victor LPV 544

Coleman Hawkins, ts; solo.
Hollywood, circa July/August 1948.

Coleman Hawkins Sextet
Nat Peck (tb) Hubert Fol (as) Coleman Hawkins (ts) Jean-Paul Mangeon (p) Pierre Michelot (b) Kenny Clarke (d)
Paris, France, December 21, 1949
V3041   SIH-SAH               Prestige PR 7824
V3042   IT'S ONLY A PAPER MOON          -
V3043   BEAN'S TALKING AGAIN              -
V3044   BAY-U-BAH        -

Coleman Hawkins (ts) Jean-Paul Mangeon (p) Pierre Michelot (b) Kenny Clarke (d)
Paris, France, December 21, 1949
V3045   I SURRENDER, DEAR       -

Benny Harris, Idrees Sulieman, tp; Matthew Gee, tb; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Cecil Payne, bs; Duke Jordan, p; Conrad Henry, b; Art Taylor, d.
New York, October 19, 1951.

Coleman Hawkins, ts; Sanford Gold, p; Al Casimenti, g; Trigger Alpert, b; Bunny Shawker, d.
New York, January 31, 1952.

Coleman Hawkins, ts; Joe Wilder, tp; Danny Mendelsohn, Bill Doggett, key; Trigger Alpert, b; Jimmy Crawford, d.
New York, February 26, 1952.

Coleman Hawkins, ts; George Barnes, g; unknown, vib; p; b; d.
New York, July 30, 1952.

Rex Stewart, cn; Tyree Glenn, tb; Coleman Hawkins, ts; Claude Hopkins, p; Billy Bauer, g; Arvell Shaw, b; Cozy Cole, d.
New York, mid 1950.

Coleman Hawkins, ts; Paul Nelson’s Orchestra conducted by Neal Hefti.
New York, April 27, 1953.

Jazz at the Philharmonic : Buck Clayton, tp; Trummy Young, tb; Willie Smith, as; Coleman Hawkins, Flip Phillips, ts; Kenny Kersey, p; Benny Fonville, b; Buddy Rich, d.
Syria Mosque, Pittsburgh, March 5, 1957.
1941/4 HOW HIGH THE MOON Clef 107/8

Sunday, February 13, 2011

Webster - Auld - Hawkins Sextet session

This session, from May 17, 1944 (sometimes falsely put on May 24), unites two disciples of the strong tenor school with their master and teacher, Coleman Hawkins.
Ben Webster and Georgie Auld (at that time 35 and 25 years old) both came from the Hawk tradition of tenor playing, with full, fat, rich, robust tones, a lot of vibrato and growl. This is the first time each of these men played with Hawkins and this Apollo session produced an unorthodox front line - trumpet and three tenor saxophones.
The accompaniment was provided by Billy Rowland (p), Hy White (g), Israel Crosby (b) and Specs Powell (d), which was at that time the rhythm section of Raymond Scott's group.

As John Chilton writes in his book The Song Of The Hawk:
"The session started after midnight so as to allow George Auld time to get from the Apollo Theatre, where he was leading his own band, to the Apollo recording studio."
There were 4 songs recorded on this session, Pick Up Boys (refers to the fact that bands put together for a special occasion are called pickup bands), Porgy, Uptown Lullaby and Salt Peanuts.

During this session, each of the tenor men played with their distinctive styles, even though some had a "better day" than the others - especially Ben Webster felt a little out of form and luck on this date.
But nevertheless - these recordings offer an interesting view on Coleman Hawkins and the effect he had on the younger players, who clearly owe much of their playing to the Hawk.
From this session, I offer 2 transcriptions, to compare and show Hawk's style and what he played, that had the ultimate effect of mastery, once again assuring himself as the father of the tenor saxophone. Hawk's harmonic knowledge is especially shown in Pick Up Boys, where compared to Auld's solo, which is mostly growly and almost strictly diatonical, Hawk uses a lot of tritone substitution and chormaticism.

Salt Peanuts (Coleman Hawkins solo, in tenor G major):

Pick Up Boys (Georgie Auld solo, followed by Coleman Hawkins solo, in tenor G major):

Saturday, December 11, 2010

Jazz Nicknames

Originally from www.allaboutjazz.com Jazz Nicknames

Slang is definitely cool, but other non-musical aspects, like nicknames, have created a certain allure or attraction to Jazz, too. Nicknames, especially the stories behind them, are fun, sometimes funny, and other times fascinating.The immortal Louis Armstrong had at least three of them. Even before jazz was officially a musical form, forerunners of it, such as Charles "Buddy" Bolden, had nicknames. In fact, it seems that the bigger the artist, the quicker he or she gained a nickname.

This list contains a few of those nicknames; if you know of any others or can expand upon the reasons for a given nickname, please send them to us .

Adderley, Julian Edwin --- Cannonball 

Actually, Adderley's original nickname was "Cannibal" because of his eating habits. "Cannonball" is merely a bastardization of "Cannibal" and is still a good fit.

Ammons, Gene --- Jug

Not sure why the tenor saxophonist was called "Jug." If you know the source of this nickname, please let us know. A reader says that Gene was called "Jug" because he could drink anyone under the table.

Armstrong, Louis --- Dipper Mouth, Satchel Mouth, Satchmo, Gate

King Oliver and other early jazz musicians called Louis "Dipper Mouth" or "Satchel Mouth", presumably because of his large mouth. Early in the thirties, Louis visited England and was given his trademark handle "Satchmo" when British fans heard the "Satchel Mouth" tag incorrectly. Billie Holiday called him "Pops." Gate was also used to designate Armstrong at some point.

According to Louis' own book "Satchmo, My Life In New Orleans" reprinted by Ace Books in 1957 (originally published 1955), "Dipper...(that was my nickname - short for Dippermouth, from the piece called Dippermouth Blues)". It would appear that the name was given to him after the tune which he evidently liked when he was very young. -Bruce Barnett

Baker, Chesney H. --- Chet

Chet was probably just a derivation of the Cool trumpeter's first name. If his parents didn't bestow this nickname on Chet, he probably did himself at an early age.

Basie, William --- Count

In his autobiography, "Good Morning Blues," he writes that he wanted to become part of the "jazz royalty of the time" - among them Duke Ellington, King Oliver, Earl Hines and Baron Lee - so he took the name 'Count.' This was in the late 1920s.

Beiderbecke, Leon --- Bix

As an astute reader puts it, "Bix's real name was Leon Bismarck Beiderbecke. That is well documented in the Bix Beiderbecke "bible" by Sudhalter et al: "Bix - man and legend". In that book there is a discussion of several pages and a photo of his death attest, where his real name is written.

The name Bismarck came from his father, who somethimes was named Bix, perhaps that's the reason why Bix was christianed Bix."

Berry, Leon --- Chu

Chu Berry resembled a character from a musical called "Chu Chin Chow."

Bertholoff, William Henry Joseph Berthol Bonaparte --- Willie "the Lion" Smith

Willie Smith was probably used to shorten the extremely long name. "The Lion" was bestowed because of Willie's forceful manner.

Or, as another reader puts it: he was called "The Lion" because of his devotion to Israel.

Blakey, Art --- Bu

Art Blakey was sometimes called "Bu," which was short for his Muslim name, Abdullah Ibn Buhaina.

Bolden, Charles --- Buddy

"Buddy" Bolden was reputed to be the first Jazz cornetist. If you know where this nickname came from, let us know.

Breitenfeld, Paul --- Paul Desmond

Desmond reportedly picked his name out of a phone book.

Brown, Clarence --- Gatemouth

Gatemouth was obviously derived from "Gator" mouth. "Alligator" was what jazz musicians called each other prior to adopting to "cat". "Hey Gate!" was a common salutation.

Brown, Clifford --- Brownie .

It is no great mystery why Clifford Brown was called "Brownie."

Byrd, Henry Roeland --- Professor Longhair, Fess, Roy

Not sure why this colorful New Orleans pre-rock pianist was called "Professor Longhair." "Fess" was a shortened form of "Professor Longhair" and "Roy" probably came from Roeland.

Clayton, Wilbur --- Buck

Clayton's nickname was given to him by his mother in reference to his African American ancestors according to a reader.

Coltrane, John --- Trane

Coltrane's nickname, "Trane", was a shortening of his last name.

Davis, Eddie --- Lockjaw

It is rumoured that Eddie was heavily "endowed." Possibly he caused a few cases of "Lockjaw" amongst his admirers?

Davis recorded a few titles named after more or less incommodating diseases in the late 1940's. "Lockjaw" was later shortened to "Jaws." -Dirk Ludigkeit

Davis, Miles --- The Prince of Darkness

In reference to Davis' aloof brooding play on stage; it's often cited how he would turn his back to the audience.

Dodds, Warren --- Baby

New Orleans drummer Warren Dodds may have been called "Baby" because he was six years younger than his brother clarinetist Johnny Dodds.

Dorham, McKinley --- Kinny / Kenny
 McKinley Dorham was originally nicknamed "Kinny" but this usually got misheard as Kenny. This is how it started to appear in record labels when he started recording. If you check lps he's on you can see the struggle over Kinny vs. Kenny. -Jonathan Fox

Edison, Harry --- Sweets

Trumpeter Edison was reputedly given the nickname "Sweets" by fellow Basie band member Lester Young. We're not sure why Lester called Harry "Sweets", but "The Pres" was notorious for bestowing nicknames.

I've recently read that Lester called Harry "Sweets" because Harry had a way with words and with music.

Eldridge, Roy --- Little Jazz

Trumpeter Eldridge received this nickname as a result of his diminutive size.

Ellington, Edward Kennedy --- Duke

The young Edward Ellington was called "Duke" by his friends and family because of his ducal manner and his natty dressing.

Evans, William --- Lateef, Yusef

Another Bill Evans. Sounds like a great trivia question!

Filipelli, Joseph Edward --- Flip Phillips

I suspect that Flip's nickname derived from his name.

Fitzgerald, Ella --- First Lady of Song

This was her nickname because she truly was the "First Lady of Song."

Gaillard, Bulee --- Slim

Not sure why this guitarist (a member of the popular "Slim and Slam" duo of the late thirties and the forties) was called "Slim." Was he thin? Let us know.

Gillespie, John Birks --- Dizzy

Gillespie acquired the nickname "Dizzy" early in his career because of his "off-the-wall" antics both onstage and off. During the bop period, while others were acting "cool", Gillespie was still acting "Dizzy" and very showman-like.

Gonsalves, Paul --- Mex

Ellington tenor saxophonist Gonsalves was mistakenly called "Mex" by some people who believed that this descendant of Cape Verdeans was Mexican.

Goodman, Benny --- King of Swing

Benny was called the "King of Swing" because of his tremendous success and fan following in much the same way that Elvis was dubbed the "King."

Green, Freddie --- Father Time

For the rock-solid beat he gave to the Count Basie band.

Green, Ian Ernest Gilmore --- Gil Evans

Gil once did an album named "Svengali." It had a credit line that said "Anagram by Gerry Mulligan." Svengali, of course, is GIl Evans, rearranged. It's the most original album credit in jazz, with the possible exception of Phil Woods's credit line that said "embouchure by" and then gave the name of his dentist.

Hampton, Locksley Wellington --- Slide

This trombone player, tuba player and composer from Indianapolis was probably called "Slide" because he played trombone at an early age.

Hanna, Roland — Sir Roland Hanna

It's not a nickname; he came by his aristocraic title legitimately. After leading a benefit tour in Africa for young African students, he was knighted in 1970 by the late president of Liberia, William Tubman.

Hawkins, Coleman --- Bean, Hawk

The "Hawk" nickname is obviously a shortening of Hawkins. "Hawk" was also known as "Bean" but we don't know why. Do you? A reader says that the "Bean" tag was bestowed because of Hawkins intellect.

One of the Classics CD liner notes tells of one time in the late 30s, when Hawkins was playing in England as a featured player for the Jack Hilton (Hylton?) orchestra, and had been quoted, I guess in Melody Maker, claiming that a good player should be able to improvise in any key. The band members surrepticiously played a tune ONE HALF TONE lower, moving it from an easy sax key to a very tough one. Hawkins, coming in for his solo, realized what was going on almost instantly, delivered a respectable solo, and NEVER MENTIONED IT afterwards.

Here's another take on "Bean." The story is that some cats looked at hs eyes and said that they look like some beans after they had soaked in some water prior to cooking. Beans swell in standing water. Hence, his eyes look like swollen beans. I've heard this story on more than one occasion.

And how about this one?

Hawkins was called "Bean" because he came from Boston or "Beantown", as it was known. apparently, people in Boston use dto eat a lot of beans with brown bread.

Lester Young once called Hawkins "The First President." Although this is not technically a nickname, it is interesting and worth a mention.

Henderson, Fletcher --- Smack

Someone out there please tell us why this mild mannered bandleader was called "Smack." A reader suggests that "Smack" is slang for heroin and that Henderson's laid back manner earned him the nickname.

Another reader states he smacked his lips when he ate.

Herman, Woodrow Charles --- Woody

Bandleader Herman's nickname was obviously a derivation of his first name.

Hines, Earl --- Fatha

Earl acquired this nickname because of his kind temperament. Many musicians felt that they could confide in him and tell him their problems and personal feelings.

Quite aside from his undoubted value as a mentor, Hines was an old guy (in his forties in the forties) who wore a toupe. — Steve Danby

Hinton, Milt --- Judge

Because it fits his longevity, professional stature and the personal respect in which he is universally held.

Hodges, Johnny --- Jeep, Rabbit

Johnny Hodges was known as Jeep and Rabbit. Don't know the source of either. Another reader observes that Jeep came from the "Popeye" cartoon strip.

According to Harry Carney, Hodges was called Rabbit because he loved lettuce and tomato sandwiches. -Dirk Ludigkeit. Another reader suggests that "Rabbit" resulted from Hodges quick trips up to a room and back at brothels.

This is somewhat scatological, but I have it on the authority of a guy who used to house some of the Ellington band members when they came through Baltimore Way Back When that Johnny Hodges got the nickname Rabbit because when the boys would visit a house of ill-repute, Hodges would (to put it as nicely as I can) go upstairs and only minutes later would come back down.

Jackson, Milt --- Bags

Milt admitted that he got his nickname, Bags, from the temporary furrows under his eyes incurred by a drinking binge after his release from the Army.

Johnson, James Louis --- J.J. 
J.J. used to sign his compositions with only his first and last initials (i.e., [J]ames [J]ohnson). This eventually stuck as a nickname. However, it is no longer a nickname, as he had his name officially changed in 1970.

Jones, Joseph --- Philly Joe

Philadelphia drummer Philly Joe Jones was given this nickname to distinguish him from Basie drummer Jo Jones.

Kirnon, Conrad --- Connie Kay

At Birdland one night, em cee Pee Wee Marquette had trouble pronouncing Kirnon and simply introduced Connie Kay.

La Menthe, Ferdinand Joseph --- Jelly Roll Morton

Jelly Roll's father, F. P. La Menthe, left home early in Jelly's youth and his mother remarried to a man named Morton. Hence, the name Morton. The "Jelly Roll" portion of the nickname has sexual connotations, and comes from early in his career when he was a pimp and a hustler as well as a musician.

Lewis, Meade --- Lux

As a child, Meade "Lux" Lewis was called "The Duke of Luxembourg" from the comic strip "Alphonse and Gaston."

Professor Longhair & other "professors"

"Professor" or "Fess" was generally given to teachers / mentors. "Longhair" is what jazz musicians used to call classical music, because of the long hair of Paderewski & other male artists. But it also refers to someone who knows his stuff - a theorist or a great inventor. — Steve Danby

Massaro, Salvatore --- Eddie Lang, Blind Willie Dunn

Eddie Lang was probably just an attempt to Americanize. Blind Willie Dunn was an attempt to Bluesify (to coin a word).

McKay, Eleanor Gough --- Billie Holiday, Lady Day

Eleanor McKay was her legal name after her father left, but Eleanor took her father's last name and the nickname "Billie." We are not sure where the "Billie" handle came from. Her good friend, saxophonist Lester Young called her "Lady Day" because of his tremendous respect for her and because he thought her every inch a lady.

Miley, James --- Bubber

We're not sure why the Ellington trumpeter was called Bubber. If you know, let us.

Mulligan, Gerry --- Jeru

Gerry Mulligan's Jeru came from his name.

Nanton, Joseph --- Tricky Sam

Ellington trombonist Joe Nanton was nicknamed "Tricky Sam" by Otto Hardwicke. This nickname probably reflects Nanton's prowess as a trombonist and his ability to apply Bubber Miley's trumpet wa- wa effects to trombone. (Original entry.)

I can't remember who gave Nanton that nickname, but it was NOT because of his skill with the plunger mute. Nanton had perfected a technique of drinking on-stage without anyone noticing. - Dirk Ludigkeit

Navarro, Theodore --- Fats or Fat Girl

Bop trumpeter Navarro received the nickname "Fat Girl" because he was somewhat overweight and effeminate. "Fats" was derived from "Fat Girl."

As I understand it, Fats Navarro was called Fat Girl because he had a high-pitched voice, not because he was effeminate.

Newman, David --- Fathead

No, it wasn't because his head was fat. Saxophonist Newman was given this nickname by his music teacher after he fumbled an arpeggio.

Norvo, Red and Bailey, Mildred --- Mr. and Mrs. Swing

Even though "Red" is obviously a nickname, that is not what this entry is about. The nickname "Mr. and Mrs. Swing" is unique because it refers to more than one person. It was bestowed on Red and Mildred because there was no more swinging (in the music sense) couple than they were during their marriage.

Oliver, Joseph --- King

Oliver was dubbed "King" because he was literally the "King" of early New Orleans jazz cornet players.

Page, Oran --- Hot Lips

Trumpeter Oran Page was called the "Hot Lips" because of his hot Armstrong-like trumpet playing.

Parker, Charlie --- Bird, Yardbird

Early in his career, Charlie was dubbed "Yardbird" because of his love for chicken. The nickname stuck and was eventually shortened to "Bird." (Original entry.)

According to one version, he and his band (including employer Jay McShann) were driving to town when a chicken ran out into the road. Upon hitting the bird, Charlie got out, picked it up and took it all the way to their destination to get it cooked up. Hence, the musicians called him Yardbird, which was later shortened to "Yard" or "Bird".

Peterson, Oscar --- Josh

Powell, Earl --- Bud

Not sure why the Bop pianist was called "Bud." Let us know if you know why.

Prestopnk, Irving --- Irving Fazola

Irving Fazola took the name Fazola from the the notes Fa, So and La of the tonic scale. Thus, Fa- So-La or Fa-Zo-La.

Pridgett, Gertrude Melissa Nix --- Ma Rainey

In 1902 she married the song and dance man William "Pa" Rainey on stage she was billed as Ma Rainey. They had a minstrel act called Ma & Pa Rainey.

Reinhardt, Jean Baptiste --- Django

Not sure why the virtuoso guitarist was called "Django." If you know, let us know. A reader points out that "Django" is the Gypsy name for Jean.

Rogers, Milton M. --- Shorty (real name Milton Rajonsky)

I'm guessing that the trumpeter was called "Shorty" because of his stature.

Rollins, Theodore Walter --- Sonny, Newk

Not sure why Rollins was called "Sonny." He got the nickname "Newk" because of his resemblance to Dodgers' pitcher Don Newcombe.

Rushing, Jimmy --- Mister Five-by-Five

It was Jimmy's body build that caused people to call him "Mister Five-by-Five."

Sims, Jack --- Zoot

Sims became known as "Zoot" after he stood behind a music stand with the word zoot painted on it.

Sinatra, Frank --- Old Blue Eyes

Pop Jazz singer Sinatra was called "Old Blue Eyes" for obvious reasons.

Smith, Buster --- Professor

We're not sure why this alto saxophonist was called "professor", but we do know that he was one of Charlie Parker's mentor's. Maybe that's why.

Smith, Jimmy --- Cat

Smith, Leroy Gordon --- Stuff

The Jazz fiddle genius earned the nickname "Stuff" because he was bad with names and addressed people as "Hey, Stuff!"

Smith, Willie --- The Lion

The story usually attached to "the Lion" handle was that during World War One, when Smith was in the artillery, he stood by his gun through shot and shell and thus earned his nickname for his bravery. Whether any of this is true I cannot verify. -Jonathan Fox

Stewart, Leroy --- Slam

Not sure why this bassist (a member of the popular "Slim and Slam" duo of the late thirties and the forties) was called "Slam." If you know, let us know.

Strayhorn, Billy --- Sweetpea

Billy got this nickname from the famous "Popeye" cartoon strip. Otto Hardwicke may be responsible for bestowing it.

Or the appellation may have come from the fact that he was pretty openly gay, which was somewhat rare in those days (and circles).

Teagarden, Jack --- Big Gate

At one point in the history of Jazz, "gate" was synonymous with a Jazz musician. Thus, "Big Gate" was a good nickname for the trombonist.

Teagarden, Charlie --- Little Gate

Since Jack was "Big Gate," it was natural that Charlie should be called "Little Gate."

Torme, Mel --- The Velvet Fog

Singer Torme was given this nickname because of his velvety singing voice.

Trumbauer, Frank --- Tram

This clarinet playing straight man sidekick of Bix Beiderbecke was called "Tram" because of his last name. "Tram" was surprisingly named by Lester Young as one of his strongest influences in a 1950's interview.

Turner, Joe --- Big Joe

Kansas City blues shouter "Big Joe" Turner received this nickname because of his large size.

Vinson, Eddie --- Cleanhead or Mr. Cleanhead 

Saxophonist Eddie Vinson was called "Cleanhead" for his bald pate (Original entry.)

Vinson was the victim of a substance called "conk" used by African Americans to straighten their hair in those days. The solution tended to get extremely hot and "Cleanhead" couldn't leave it on his head long enough to do what it was supposed to do, so he started trying to get it out and patches of his hair came with it. Since he had to go to work that evening and had no desire to wear a bandana or handkerchief on his head, he shaved off what was left. The band members had a ball with the epithets and the sobriquet "Cleanhead" stuck.

Another version courtesy of Axel Melhardt: While Eddie "Cleanhead" Vinson worked at my club JAZZLAND in Vienna, Austria in the 70-ies I found him one morning at the hotel in front of the mirror shaving his head. He told me that after his big hit "Folks call me Mr.Cleanhead" he had to upkeep his bald head for the rest of his life in order to get gigs. Up until his early death he had full hair (with little white patches) which grew only on his days off stage.

Waller, Thomas --- Fats

There is no mystery to the nickname "Fats" which was given to the rotund stride pianist Thomas Waller.

Webster, Ben --- Frog, The Brute

Ben Webster was known as Frog, I think because of his somewhat bulging eyes.

Williams, Charles Melvin --- Cootie

We don't know why Ellington trumpeter Charles Melvin Williams was called "Cootie". If you do, let us know.

Young, Lester Willis --- Pres, The President

Lester's nickname "Pres" or "The President" comes from his good friend Billie Holiday who thought that he was, indeed, the "president" of saxophone players.

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Coleman Hawkins - tritone substitutions

Addition to the previous entry about how Coleman Hawkins came to learn the tritone substitutions.

While reading Hawkins' book The Song Of The Hawk I have come over nice story, which tells us probably how Coleman Hawkins learned about the possibility of tritone substitutions, in words of Albert Bettonville, recalling a night out in Ostend in 1937:

"We went to an Hungarian nightclub to hear a tzigane violinist playing and also improvising with maestria. Hawk was extremely interested  and talked a lot with him about harmony. When I met Hawk again after the war I congratulated him for his superb 'Body and Soul'. He only said - Do you remember that Hungarian violinist?"

Hawk is also talking about its acceptance, in one interview: 

"You know when the record first came out, everybody including Chu Berry said I was playing wrong notes on it. They just weren't making these changes. But the changes I made on 'Body and Soul' are the only changes to make. They thought I was wrong. But at that time you make some type of a D change going into D flat and that was wrong. At that time you had to make an A flat 7th (they didn't know, that was relative chord to D anyway) to go into D flat. They heard that D and it had to be: 'Oh, that's terrible.' It became common after that, but it certainly wasn't common before I made 'Body and Soul', I can tell you that."

What a brave, fearless, adventurous man it was, the great Coleman Hawkins.

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Coleman Hawkins solo - She's Funny That Way

This recording was made on October 11, 1939. This date should be well known to every jazz fan, as this is the same date, on which Hawk recorded the famous Body And Soul, which laid the fundamentals of  bebop harmonic playing.
Having in mind my last transcription of Coleman Hawkins, from 1944, this solo from 1939 is to me clearly showing the way, how Hawk came to utilizing the tritone substitutions in his playing. We can see his use of diminished chord (anticipating dominant F7b9 chord to the tonic Bb major), freely floating from Bb major scale through the diminished chord (mostly descending -> f# eb c a) back to the home Bb major.
Changing one tone in the diminished (c to b natural) shows us exactly the way I think Hawk discovered the possible use of tritone substitutive chords for playing out of key (Imaj, I#7, Imaj) or playing through ii-V-I changes by using ii-I#7-I. In this so to say "early" solo he mostly doesn't yet use the full tritone substitution (he still holds on to the "c" tone in the diminished chord), but we can see some patterns, where only changing one tone would lead exactly to the harmonic progressions present in later Rainbow Mist solo (for example the 1st measure of the solo on the last bar Hawk plays f# eb c a, changing c to h would give us the substitution progression).

I am very glad to be able to examine recordings by the great jazz artists and finding out on my own, how they came to their style of playing. These moments of finding such clear (at least to me) evidence of Hawk's continual development make me feel that even my journey of jazz has a purpose.
I can't explain it, I just feel it.
Here is the solo, enjoy. But going through the notes, don't forget to still focus on the most important - swing!
Coleman Hawkins - She's Funny That Way

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Happy Birthday, John Coltrane

One of the greatest musicians that jazz has ever been blessed by, John William Coltrane, born on September 23, 1926, in a small town called Hamlet, in North Carolina.

Happy birthday, and may your music live long, Trane!
 John Coltrane
(23.9.1926 - 17.7.1967)

Friday, September 17, 2010

Coleman Hawkins - Rainbow Mist - complete solo analysis

I have never done any musical analysis before, well, any written analysis. I hope to explain the harmonic and melodic devices used in this solo.
At the beginning, a short introduction is appropriate, so who is Coleman Hawkins?

Coleman Randolph Hawkins (November 21, 1904 – May 19, 1969) was an American jazz tenor saxophonist, generally recognized as the father of the tenor saxophone, as he was the first person to use this horn as a jazz solo instrument, not just a part of vaudeville performances. Hawkins himself is quoted to say the following: "Some people say there was no jazz tenor before me. All I know is I just had a way of playing and I didn't think in terms of any other instrument but the tenor."

This master of improvisation in the early years already showed very advanced harmonic thinking and harmonic approach. It must have partially been derived and inspired by Art Tatum, whom Hawkins admired, but much of it was probably made up by Hawk himself.
One of the biggest breakthrough points in jazz improvisation in terms of using of different approaches (this one leading to bebop) is dated October 11, 1939. On this day Hawkins recorded two choruses of standard pop song Body & Soul. His interpretation ignores most of the melody, thus leaving him enough space to explore harmonic structures of the song, not relying so much on the melody - which is what the bebop musicians later would start to do (partially inspired by Hawk as well).

The song I am using in my analysis was recorded 4&1/2 years later, on February 22, 1944, and is based on the same harmonic structure as standard Body & Soul. And while in Body & Soul from 1939, Hawk still used more space and melody fragments, characteristic for swing improvisation, in Rainbow Mist from the very beginning he is bursting out ideas in double time, leaving spaces only to breathe. Though this masterpiece can be by some regarded as a harmonic exercise of the great tenorman, it for sure does not lack anything musically - it is sophisticated, but also full of soul, heart, it offers great atmosphere and certainly verifies, that Hawk was all worthy to be called the father of the tenor saxophone...

Here is the result.

Following is analysis of tonal/harmonic progressions used by Coleman Hawkins is this solo, 8 measure segments. My goal is to recognize and emphasize Hawk's main techniques he uses throughout this solo.

The song structure is AABA, with chord progressions same as the pop standard Body & Soul. Hawkins' improvisation covers the complete song length (excluding intro and last chord) and consists of 2 choruses and a cadenza at the end.

1st chorus

A1 (measures 1-8): 
- already in the 1st measure Hawk utilizes what was very characteristic for his playing of this "Body&Soul" period, that is using phrases that contain the interval of major 13th and major 9th of the chord, especially in minor chords. By using this he accomplishes a specific color, which sounds very open and vague, but still tonal.
- in measures 2 & 8 he uses another frequent device of his - substituting the V7 for I#7 in a ii-V7-I progression. Going from F-7 through Bb7 he substitutes this chord for E7, clearly using 3rd,5th and 8th to emphasize the chord. This could be perceived as upper structures of Bb7 (b7, b9, #11), but the way Hawk plays it, it is certain, that he is indicating E7, smoothly going into Ebmaj7.
- in measure 8 he uses diminished C#o7th chord in place of C7, leading to F minor.

A2 (measures 9-16):
- in measure 9 he uses maj7 in a minor chord when ascending, while using min7 when descending. This way he is utilizing the leading tones, achieving very natural way to play upward arpeggios.
- in measures 10 & 15 he again uses his trademark - V7 for I#7 substitution, very much in the same manner as previously.
- measure 11 presents a smooth way to achieve transition from the substitution E7 to Ebmaj7 - Hawkins uses the f# (which he used in E7) on the first 2 beats, and then changes the f# to g, thus finally entering the Eb chord.
- first 3 notes in measure 13 present an indirect resolution, leading to f natural.
- measure 13 also contains a natural, even though the chord is f minor - this might be a mistake, but as it is partially a ghost note and an offbeat, it is barely audible. And as Hawk himself said: "If you don't make mistakes, you aren't really trying." :o)

B (measures 17-24):
- measure 17 shows usage of major 13th in a major chord.
- measure 21 presents another smooth and interesting transition, this time form Emaj7 to E-7, Hawk uses g# on an offbeat in the first beat of E-7 chord, inducing a E major 5321 phrase downward, but on the 2nd beat emphasizing g natural, thus arriving to the E minor chord. These types of transitions, which still use tonal material of the previous chord into the new chord, or anticipate the material of next chord in the current chord, add to Hawk's playing the feeling of flowing/flying over changes, as if he was not bound to any bar lines, chords of strict rules. It very much adds feeling of naturalness into his playing.
- measure 23 substitutes A7 for Eb7, again using Eb7 (which is the tritone substitution) as if it was the normal dominant, using natural intervals of Eb, namely major 9th.
- measure 24 is mainly following chord tones, using some passing chromatic notes - interesting fact is, that even though the C7 leads to Fminor, it contains natural 9th (d natural), which as an anticipation can be considered maj13th of the Fminor chord, which Hawk liked to use.

A3 (measures 25-32):
- again there is usage of maj13th in minor chords, namely in measures 25 & 31.
- measure 27 contains an indirect resolution (ab f f# to g, which is the 3rd of the chord).
- measure 29 consists purely (with 1 exception, g natural) of F-7 chord notes, played in arpeggios, but still manages to sound very musical, certainly not like an exercise on chords, which many musicians practice. Here fits Hawk's quote: "I honestly can't characterize my style in words. It seems that whatever comes to me naturally, I play."
- measure 31 presents also previously used suggestion of tritone substitution by using e natural in octaves.

2nd chorus

A1 (measures 33-40):
- measure 33 begins with a little ornament (around f natural), measure 36 repeats this ornament using almost the same notes. Little things like these bring a sense of unity into Hawkins' solos.
- measure 34 uses some chromatic passing tones (b natural, but also the d natural on the beat can be considered a passing tone to note eb) and finishes with already well-known tritone substitution (F- E7 Ebmaj7).
- in measure 36 on the F#o7 diminished Hawk uses the diminished scale WtHt (but with bb instead of b natural), which was later used by modern players such as John Coltrane - very similar to using the diminished axis F#o7 and choosing any of the 4 related chords (Ab7, B7, D7, and in this case F7) to substitute for the diminished.
- measure 39 presents another tritone substitution.

A2 (measures 41-48):
- measure 41 is similar to measure 9 in using the maj7 in minor chord.
- measure 42 presents another tritone substitution, this time very skillfully connected - on 3rd beat there is descending arpeggio consisting of notes of Bb7(b9) - f d b ab, and on 4th beat is another descending arpeggio, beginning half tone higher than the previous - on f#, continuing with the same notes as the previous arpeggio - d b ab. The first one belongs to Bb7(b9), but by just moving one tone a half step higher, the second arpeggio feels as if it belongs to E79 (which is tritone substitution to Bb7).
- measure 44 during F#o7 diminished again utilizes the diminished axis and substitutes for tones of F7 dominant.
- measure 46 contains both a passing note a# and usage of notes from diminished chord (b,g#,d,f).
- measure 47 is another suggestion of tritione substitution.
- measure 48 shows another smooth transition between chords - though the band is already playing F#-7, Hawk still flies through F-79 descending arpeggio and joins the new progression on the 3rd beat with emphasizing B7 chord notes. For Hawk it is vital to really emphasize the new chord after flying through the previous chord through the new progression - to make the transition smooth, he never ends on the first note, but rather emphasizes the chord notes several times before finishing the phrase. This way always sound as if he was really flying, very smoothly. 

B (measures 49-56):
- just as in measure 48, in measure 51 Hawk continues playing the old chord (A-7) when already on E/G#, but to smooth out the transition he continues and emphasizes Emajor9 before moving to F#-7 and B7. For all these techniques that Hawkins uses, it really helps that he plays double time (16ths), so he has enough time and space to execute such progressions.
- at the end of measure 52 he anticipates the following E minor chord by using g natural, even though he is still in Emaj7. The same principle as in other places applies.
- on A7 in measure 53 he uses leading tones to get to Dmaj7 (getting through b nautral, b flat, to a natural).
- in measure 54 there is another anticipation, this time Hawk anticipates Fo7 diminished on beat 2, though the band still plays Dmaj7.
- in measure 55 during A7 he substitutes this for Eb79 (again, by the natural 9th he achieves the feeling of clean substitution, not playing out of the changes)
- during measure 56, which features chords D,Db7,C7, is masterfully filled mostly through a diminished chord on Db7 (with Do7 diminished), and through an indirect resolution on the last beat, which cleanly suggests C7 and leads to F minor 7. Amazing is that even though Hawk uses mostly chord tones here, it doesn't sound empty or mechanical at all.

incomplete A3 (measures 57-62):

- measure 58 is one of the most interesting points in this solo - though the band clearly still plays F-7, Hawkins masterfully anticipates Bb7+5(that's why the f#). Analyzed only by itself it would sound very much out of tune, as f# would be the b9 in the Fminor chord, but looking at this from the point of higher conception/structure, it is one beautiful leading note from f, through f# to g natural, which is the 3rd of following Eb chord.
- measures 57 to 61 should be considered as a 1 big phrase consisting of 3 alike motives, each raising up by a half step (1st one has top on f, 2nd has top on f#, 3rd one has top on g), with the last one resolving to measure 61 - beautiful Fminor 69. One should also notice the bottom held notes, which in measure 58 is f#, in measure 59 is g and in measure 61 is ab, even though held only shortly, compared to the previous bottom notes.
- measure 62 introduces another passing note (from g through f# to f natural), which is exceptional in the fact, that it is 8th,maj7,min7 in the chord G7, as this was later heavily used by the be-boppers, known as the dominant bebop scale. However, Hawkins doesn't choose to continue down the scale but rather uses a descending diminished arpeggio.

cadenza (measures 63-69):
- measures 63 & 64 are a simple progression F-7 Bb7 Eb, spiced up only by another tritone progression, after Bb7 before coming to Eb tonic.
- measure 65 can be explained as a short progression from G-minor (only represented by the first chromatic 4 notes), through F#-713, leading to measure 66, which is (with the exception of the f# passing note) an ordinary F-7.
- measure 67 can be perceived as a Bb7b9 chord, with the ending appearing as a Db7 chord, but in fact it could simply be a Bb7b9#9 chord, so Hawk could also think this as an alteration.
- measure 68 does not  represent anything extraordinary, it is a simple F-7 Bb7b9 Eb ending with few passing notes, landing majestically on the tonic of the whole song, Eb. At this time the orchestra joins and finishes with a powerful Eb major chord.

This brings me to the end of my analysis. The main trademarks of Hawk's style that one could notice in this performance are:
1. the tritone substitutions, which Hawkins usually applies by playing the chord triad with the natural 9 of the substitution chord.
2. the anticipation (which means playing the following chord, when still the former one is being played by the band), or its opposite (that means staying on the previous chord even though the band already plays the new chord). Importantly, Hawkins always emphasizes the final chord before finishing the phrase, so that the transition has the feeling of smoothness and naturalness.
3. usage of diminished seventh chords a halfstep higher in place of dominant chords (simply the maj3,pefect5,min7,min9 of the dominant chord).

However, even though Coleman Hawkins is greatly ahead of his time with usage of these harmonic and melodic devices, the main importance stays on his ability to create the atmosphere of carefree swinging even when it sounds that he is playing simple straight notes, and his facility of his technique and his huge full sound on the tenor saxophone, which enforces a feeling of great authority, almost a noble-like appearance.

Hawk himself once said "I made the tenor sax - there's nobody plays like me and I don't play like anybody else."
These words are very true even now, 66 years after this recording, even now, 41 years after his death.

Nobody can play like Hawk, only Hawk himself.